New Growth of sciences, arts, artistic, and social life that is human being starts to think in new way, including also about itself. Humans being as Faber Mundi (one who done in world). Power shall no longer on the basis of religion criterion or moralities but on the basis of political criterion.
Modern characteristic of idea of Niccole Machiavelli:
Machiavelli does not start to philosophize by raising definition. But analyzing former human being with nature of and natural tendency of then leave to go to power analysis. And stability feather in one's cap of political community one nation, Italian nation
He tell “what reality”, none “what deservedly” there is. Natural human being is human being having passion conquer. That human being generally has the nature of negativity. There is stress and intelligence.
Machiavelli major mainstream and action “instinct” human being:
- Action: Human being having passion conquer, does not know thank, confuse, errant, its profit will own, fear to face danger.
- Mainstream: proud Human being itself easy cheats his self, difficult to so that secede from this disease. There is 2 form of government: And Monarchy republic (The Prince, chapter 1, page. 53). From this 2 form of government, best State Monarchy. State requires power to reach its target. And unity feather in one's cap of state determined by stable power and power which is stable to be determined by clever power.
Clever power: Soybean cake use the way of animal and way of human being (The Prince, chapter 18, matter. 99)
May not fear little face accusation do badness, if that badness requires to be conducted by for the sake of safety of state (The Prince, chapter 15, page, 92)
Politics and Moralities Two (2) different Region:
Experience indicate that all a success power conduct big things is them assuming easy to the promise – their promise, they know how to play tricks on people with ingenuity of it, and which finally win to them holding principal firmness of sincerity (The Prince, bab18,page. 99)
- • Autonomous politics: Agreeing all way of to protect power. All way of (deed and action) pettifogging, cruel, criminal, immoral can be agreed as far as that conducted by for the sake of its state.
- Moralities: Appliance to support power. Both for power to have the nature of goodness (like to forgive, liberally is, downright, human being, candid, pious) but at any times if required (in a state of emergency), he also have to earn to do which on the contrary (The Prince, chapter 18, page. 99 )
Limitation of Machiavelli
There is limitation conception about human being that is seeing human being from its weakness. Weakness of this human being is later completed by Thomas Hobbes become Theory Agreements State. Overruling values arrange ethic, religion, and society because fetching up all standing at practical importance, that is giving hold to power.
Idea of political Philosophy of Machiavelli very controversy because freeing political philosophy from old world shackle (moralities role in politics). By freeing politics from moralities hence political to by itself become an autonomous value system, self-supporting and free from other value system. Idea of political Philosophy of Machiavelli is immoral and non immoral. Importance of State becomes size measure and highest value to take and determine policy in power.